What factors account for the current level of public indebtedness in the UK and what economic and fiscal measures can the UK Government use to reduce that level of debt in the next 5 years - Essay Example Even in the countries with no major affected of the financial crisis, the national debt rose approximately 20% in 2007 to 2009. United Kingdom is one of the five countries with systaltic financial crisis. In these countries the national debt is approximately 75%. Like the rest of the world, UK is greatly affected by the financial crisis that led to an increased budget deficit and public debt. The situation was alarming as the public sector total debt was Â£1, 231 .7 billion by the end of November 2013, equal to 76.6% of GDP (ONS public sector finances, 2013). During the global financial crisis from mid 1990s, public sector debt fell to 29% of GDP. UK national debt witnessed an increase of 37% of the GDP from 2002 â€“ 2007. Even during the long period of expansion the public debt in the country kept on increasing. The main reason for this was considered to be the countries increased spending on health and education (ONS public sector finances, 2013). Not only that the spending on social security was raised as well (Ecomincs Help, 2013). In UK the other reason behind the sharp increase in public debt are: The rescission 2008-2013 particularly affected the housing industry resulting the falling of house prices, low taxes and unemployment. The country has seen a sharp decline in the income tax receipt and corporation tax. These factors later exposed the structural deficit. Many financial institutions bailed out that included Northern Rock, RBS, Lloyds and other banks. Debt is considered to be a two edged sward. It is its use and application that can minimize its adverse effect. If utilized wisely it can no doubt be a support in the rough times, but if not it can result in a disaster. Still the importance of borrowing cannot be ignored in the present times. The role of borrowing at the public level has gained importance after the great recession and the public borrowing globally has increased
When we look closely at the romance of Beatrice and Benedick, we see the problems that a rational lover has in putting aside his concept of honour in order to love a woman and Shakespeare cleverly contrasts this relationship with our idealistic lover Claudio, who is incapable of rejecting the restrictions that honour places on a man. In a parallel construction we see through the relationship that the boorish Claudio has with the docile Hero that for love to flourish it must reject chivalric notions of honour.
The social hierarchy of Messina, is a very class conscious one and being witty is almost a full time occupation for many of its inhabitants. Playing practical jokes and tricks upon each other is a subtle way of maintaining the strict codes of conduct and among the most successful and benevolent of the deceptions practised are the parallel practical jokes played on Beatrice and Benedick in order to trick each of them into admitting their love for one another.
In their first encounter, we see Beatrice and Benedick using their superior intellects to ridicule each other. Benedick warns her to â€˜keep her ladyshipâ€™ and she lashes back with insults around his physicality suggesting that he is so ugly that â€˜scratching his face could not make it worseâ€™. Benedick uses his wit to shield himself from her barbs, hiding his true feelings and pretending to enjoy his bachelor existence when actually it is a mechanism for his safety. Benedick presents one face to the world in order to be accepted by the society that judges him and it is this society that acknowledges his wit, but underpinning Benedickâ€™s wit is his distaste for the superficial values that Messinian society is built upon. His ironic attitude towards both himself and the world he is held captive by is apparent in his soliloquy, where he weighs up the discrepancy between how the world sees him and how he sees himself.
The repartee between Beatrice and Benedick is sometimes blunt and crude, sometimes elaborate and self conscious. Puns, similes, metaphors, and paradoxes are all brought into play in their continual game of mutual insults and it is this aggressive verbal battle which pushes Beatrice and Benedick to the foreground of the play. Being in love is a game for fools and Benedick vows to never be â€˜such a foolâ€™. Benedick persuades himself that by staying away from Beatrice and denying himself any notions of marriage, he is a confirmed misogymist, that he is the stronger individual and has control over his life instead of living for another human being and risking becoming a hopelessly â€˜in loveâ€™ lover. Benedick views women in society as somehow predatory, wanting to â€˜captureâ€™ a man and contain him in marriage, only to torture him with subsequent betrayal. However when faced with a woman such as Beatrice, who proclaims herself equally contemptuous of marriage and for the same reasons, Benedickâ€™s role begins to fall apart, which is where Benedick faces the biggest battle in his life, as he fights to hold on to his notions of male honour. But no matter how hard he tries he cannot frame for himself a separate language of love and as a result he and Beatrice construct a loving relationship which is as much of a sparring match as their enmity, once Benedick gives up his notions of male honour.
In stark contrast to Benedick and Beatrice, Shakespeareâ€™s ideal lovers, Claudio and Hero, â€˜believeâ€™ they are in love with each other, but we quickly see that when put to the test this love is superficial and lacks the true acknowledgement of each otherâ€™s individuality needed to sustain it. Their love for each other, although seemingly sincere, dissipates at the first obstacle and doubt sees one quick to accuse the other of adultery. For Beatrice and Benedick however, their jokes are the means whereby they can resist the kind of love-relationship exemplified by Hero and Claudio. In the end the â€˜happy-endingâ€™ which sees Hero married off to Claudio is one fraught with contradictions, for this conventional relationship, founded as it is on romantic love, which they exemplify, has been severely satirised by Shakespeare.
By presenting the relationship between Beatrice and Benedick as real and not idealistic, we see the fragility of an idealised, romantic love such as the one Claudio has with Hero and its tendency to collapse into loathing and disgust becomes all too apparent. Appropriately the play ends not with Claudio and Hero whose strict adherence to an unbending code of honour temporarily fragments their relationship, but with Beatrice and Benedick who overcome both the male code of honour and societyâ€™s expectations to love and accept each other for their individual selves. There is a relationship built on mutual trust, respect and acceptance and proof that Love must be truthful to be sustained.
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